Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (BAF3M) CONTACT US
Course Title : Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (BAF3M)
Course Name : Financial Accounting Fundamentals
Course Code : BAF3M
Grade : 11
Course Type : University/College Preparation
Credit Value : 1.0
Prerequisite : None
Curriculum Policy Document: Business Studies, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, 2006 (Revised)
Course Developer: USCA Academy
Department:  Business Studies
Development Date: June 2019
Most Recent Revision Date:  June 2019

Course Description

This course introduces students to the fundamental principles and procedures of accounting. Students will develop financial analysis and decision-making skills that will assist them in future studies and/or career opportunities in business. Students will acquire an understanding of accounting for a service and a merchandising business, computerized accounting, financial analysis, and ethics and current issues in accounting.

Overall Curriculum Expectations

A1 describe the discipline of accounting and its importance for business;

A2 describe the differences among the various forms of business organization

A3 demonstrate an understanding of the basic procedures and principles of the accounting cycle for a service business.

B1 demonstrate an understanding of the procedures and principles of the accounting cycle for a merchandising business;

B2 demonstrate an understanding of the accounting practices for sales tax;;

B3 apply accounting practices in a computerized environment.

C1 demonstrate an understanding of internal control procedures in the financial management of a business;

C2 evaluate the financial status of a business by analysing performance measures and financial statements;

C3 evaluate the financial status of a business by analysing performance measures and financial statements;

D1 assess the role of ethics in, and the impact of current issues on, the practice of accounting;

D2 assess the impact of technology on the accounting functions in business;

D3 describe professional accounting designations and career opportunities

Outline of Course Content

Unit

Titles and Descriptions

Time and Sequence

Unit 1

Introduction to Accounting for a Service Business

Students are introduced to the discipline of accounting and learn the skills necessary to complete the accounting cycle for a service business. In addition, students explore career opportunities in Accounting. The fundamental accounting equation, although not specifically mentioned in the expectations, is an integral part of any introductory accounting course.

30 hours

Unit 2

Accounting for a Merchandising Business

Students learn the key role of inventory in a business that sells products not services. They learn how inventory impacts the accounting entries that are made, the statements that are produced, and the adjusting and closing process.

25 hours

Unit 3

Business Structures and Accounting Implications

Students learn the role of the owner in the different business structures. They learn the differences in the Accounting for equity required in a sole proprietorship, a partnership or corporation. Particular focus is given to the Partnership in its various forms.

25 hours

Unit 4

Advanced Topics

In this unit students will pursue one of the following four topics in depth after being briefly introduced to each one: Extended Partnership Accounting, Corporate Accounting, Accounting for Manufacturing Businesses and Financial Control Systems.

27 hours

 

Final Evaluation

The final assessment task is a two-hour exam worth 30% of the student’s final mark.

3 hours

 

Total

110 hours

Since the over-riding aim of this course is to an accounting literacy in all students, a wide variety of instructional strategies are used to provide learning opportunities to accommodate a variety of learning styles, interests and ability levels. These include:

Problem-based models

Guided internet research

Direct Instructions

Independent Research

Discussion Groups

Research process

Oral Presentations

Interviews

Excel work sheets

Case studies

Multimedia presentations

Word processor sheets

Problem solving

Discussion groups

Interviews

Assessment is a systematic process of collecting information or evidence about a student's progress towards meeting the learning expectations. Assessment is embedded in the instructional activities throughout a unit. The expectations for the assessment tasks are clearly articulated and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course. The purpose of assessment is to gather the data or evidence and to provide meaningful feedback to the student about how to improve or sustain the performance in the course. Scaled criteria designed as rubrics are often used to help the student to recognize their level of achievement and to provide guidance on how to achieve the next level. Although assessment information can be gathered from a number of sources (the student himself, the student's course mates, the teacher), evaluation is the responsibility of only the teacher. For evaluation is the process of making a judgment about the assessment information and determining the percentage grade or level.

Assessment is embedded within the instructional process throughout each unit rather than being an isolated event at the end. Often, the learning and assessment tasks are the same, with formative assessment provided throughout the unit. In every case, the desired demonstration of learning is articulated clearly and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course as stated in the course guideline. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.

The assessment will be based on the following processes that take place in the classroom:

Assessment FOR Learning Assessment AS Learning Assessment OF Learning

During this process the teacher seeks information from the students in order to decide where the learners are and where they need to go.

During this process the teacher fosters the capacity of the students and establishes individual goals for success with each one of them.

During this process the teacher reports student’s results in accordance to established criteria to inform how well students are learning.

Conversation Conversation Conversation

Classroom discussion Self-evaluation Peer assessment

Classroom discussion Small group discussion Post-lab conferences Presentations of research Debates
Observation Observation Observation
Drama workshops (taking direction) Steps in problem solving Group discussions Presentations Group Presentations
Student Products Student Products Student Products
Reflection journals (to be kept throughout the duration of the course)
Check Lists
Success Criteria
Practice sheets
Socrative quizzes
Projects
Poster presentations Tests
In Class Presentations

A variety of strategies are used to allow students opportunities to attain the necessary skills for success in this course and at the post-secondary level of study. To facilitate learning, the teacher uses a variety of activities engaging the whole class, small groups, and individual students.

Some of the approaches to teaching/learning include

Strategy

Who

Assessment Tool

Class discussion

Teacher/student

Observation Checklist

Practical Exercises

 Teacher

Rubric or marking scheme

Daily class work

Teacher/student

Observation Checklist

Assignments

 Teacher

Rubric or marking scheme

Written test

Student

Marking scheme

Simply accounting

Teacher/student

Marking scheme

Final written exam

Teacher/student

Marking scheme

The evaluation of this course is based on the four Ministry of Education achievement categories of knowledge and understanding (25%), thinking (25%), communication (25%), and application (25%). . The evaluation for this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning.

The percentage grade represents the quality of the student's overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline.

A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student's grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

  • 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student's most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of
  • 30% of the grade will be based on a final exam administered at the end of the The exam will contain a summary of information from the course and will consist of well-formulated questions. These will be evaluated using a checklist.

Potential Resources

Accounting 1, Syme, et al., Prentice Hall, 2002 Simply Accounting 2011, Sage

For the teachers who are planning a program in Accounting Courses must take into account several important areas. The areas of concern to all teachers that are outlined in the policy document of Ontario Ministry of Education, include the following:

  • teaching approaches
  • types of secondary school courses
  • education for exceptional students
  • the role of technology in the curriculum
  • English as a second language (ESL) and English literacy development (ELD)
  • career education
  • cooperative education and other workplace experiences
  • health and safety in mathematics

It is important to ensure that all students, especially those with special education needs, are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence needed to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs. Accommodations (instructional, environmental or assessment) allow the student with special education needs access to the curriculum without changes to the course curriculum expectations.

Environmental education teaches students about how the planet's physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design following the resource document. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.

USCA helps students to become environmentally responsible. The first goal is to promote learning about environmental issues and solutions. The second goal is to engage students in practicing and promoting environmental stewardship in their community. The third goal stresses the importance of the education system providing leadership by implementing and promoting responsible environmental practices so that all stakeholders become dedicated to living more sustainably. Environmental education teaches students about how the planet's physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future.

USCA provides a number of strategies to address the needs of ESL/ELD students to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. Our teacher considers it to be his or her responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate accommodations affecting the teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. School determines the student's level of proficiency in the English Language upon registration. This information is communicated to the teacher of the course following the registration and the teacher then invokes a number of strategies and resources to support the student in the course.

Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this course are essential for a wide range of careers. Being able to express oneself in a clear concise manner without ambiguity in a second language, would be an overall intention of this course, as it helps students prepare for success in their working lives.

By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Teachers should maintain links with community-based businesses to ensure that students have access to hands-on experiences that will reinforce the knowledge they have gained in school.

Every student is entitled to learn in a safe, caring environment, free from violence and harassment. Students learn and achieve better in such environments. The safe and supportive social environment at USCA is founded on healthy relationships between all people. Healthy relationships are based on respect, caring, empathy, trust, and dignity, and thrive in an environment in which diversity is honoured and accepted. Healthy relationships do not tolerate abusive, controlling, violent, bullying/harassing, or other inappropriate behaviours. To experience themselves as valued and connected members of an inclusive social environment, students need to be involved in healthy relationships with their peers, teachers, and other members.

Critical thinking is the process of thinking about ideas or situations in order to understand them fully, identify their implications, make a judgement, and/or guide decision making. Critical thinking includes skills such as questioning, predicting, analysing, synthesizing, examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias, and distinguishing between alternatives. Students who are taught these skills become critical thinkers who can move beyond superficial conclusions to a deeper understanding of the issues they are examining. They are able to engage in an inquiry process in which they explore complex and multifaceted issues, and questions for which there may be no clear-cut answers.

The school library program in USCA can help build and transform students' knowledge in order to support lifelong learning in our information- and knowledge-based society. The school library program of these schools supports student success across the curriculum by encouraging students to read widely, teaching them to examine and read many forms of text for understanding and enjoyment, and helping them improve their research skills and effectively use information gathered through research. USCA teachers assist students in accessing a variety of online resources and collections (e.g., professional articles, image galleries, videos, databases). Teachers at USCA will also guide students through the concept of ownership of work and the importance of copyright in all forms of media.

Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Virtual High School students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment. Although the Internet is a powerful learning tool, there are potential risks attached to its use. All students must be made aware of issues related to Internet privacy, safety, and responsible use, as well as of the potential for abuse of this technology, particularly when it is used to promote hatred.

USCA provides varied opportunities for students to learn about ethical issues and to explore the role of ethics in both public and personal decision making. During the inquiry process, students may need to make ethical judgements when evaluating evidence and positions on various issues, and when drawing their own conclusions about issues, developments, and events. Teachers may need to help students in determining appropriate factors to consider when making such judgements. In addition, it is crucial that USCA teachers provide support and supervision to students throughout the inquiry process, ensuring that students engaged in an inquiry are aware of potential ethical concerns and address them in acceptable ways. Teachers will ensure that they thoroughly address the issue of plagiarism with students. In a digital world in which there is easy access to abundant information, it is very easy to copy the words of others and present them as one's own. Students need to be reminded, even at the secondary level, of the ethical issues surrounding plagiarism, and the consequences of plagiarism should be clearly discussed before students engage in an inquiry. It is important to discuss not only dishonest plagiarism but also more negligent plagiarism instances.