Issues in Canadian Geography Grade 9 or 10, Academic (CGC1D)

Course Title : Issues in Canadian Geography, Grade 9 (CGC1D)
Course Name : Issues in Canadian Geography
Course Code : CGC1D
Grade : 9
Course Type : Academic
Credit Value : 1.0
Prerequisite : None
Curriculum Policy Document: Canadian and World Studies, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, 2018 (Revised)
Course Developer: USCA Academy
Department: Business Studies
Development Date: June 2019
Most Recent Revision Date: June 2019

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.17.0″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

Course Description

This course examines interrelationships within and between Canada’s natural and human systems and how these systems interconnect with those in other parts of the world. Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live.


Overall Curriculum Expectations

A1. Geographic Inquiry:

use the geographic inquiry process and the concepts of geographic thinking when investigating issues relating to Canadian geography;

A2. Developing Transferable Skills:

Apply in everyday contexts skills, including spatial technology skills, developed through the investigation of Canadian geography, and identify some careers in which a background in geography might be an asset;

B1. The Physical Environment and Human Activities:

Analyse various interactions between physical processes, phenomena, and events and human activities in Canada;

B2. Interrelationships between Physical Systems, Processes, and Events:

Analyse characteristics of various physical processes, phenomena, and events affecting Canada and their interrelationship with global physical systems;

B3. The Characteristics of Canada’s Natural Environment:

Describe various characteristics of the natural environment and the spatial distribution of physical features in Canada, and explain the role of physical processes, phenomena, and events in shaping them.

C1. The Sustainability of Resources:

Analyse impacts of resource policy, resource management, and consumer choices on resource sustainability in Canada;

C2. The Development of Resources:

Analyse issues related to the distribution, availability, and development of natural resources in Canada from a geographic perspective;

C3. Industries and Economic Development:

Assess the relative importance of different industrial sectors to the Canadian economy and Canada’s place in the global economy, and analyse factors that influence the location of industries in these sectors.

D1. Population Issues:

Analyse selected national and global population issues and their implications for Canada;

D2. Immigration and Cultural Diversity:

Describe the diversity of Canada’s population, and assess some social, economic, political, and environmental implications of immigration and diversity for Canada;

D3. Demographic Patterns and Trends:

Analyse patterns of population settlement and various demographic characteristics of the Canadian population.

E1. The Sustainability of Human Systems:

Analyse issues relating to the sustainability of human systems in Canada;

E2. Impacts of Urban Growth:

Analyse impacts of urban growth in Canada;

E3. Characteristics of Land Use in Canada:

Analyse characteristics of land use in various Canadian communities, and explain how some factors influence land-use patterns.

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ custom_margin=”||-1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

Outline of Course Content

Unit Titles and Descriptions Time Allocated

Unit 1: What Is Geography?

This unit offers an introduction to the types of tools geographers use and how those tools are utilized in the study of geography. Various steps of the inquiry process are explored in detail. The inquiry process is used throughout the unit to answer questions and explore the types of issues geographers seek to address.

12 hours

Unit 2: Interactions in the Physical Environment

This unit explores the different geographic regions of Canada. The content offers in- depth descriptions of the landforms and climate regions in Canada and explains how these different regions were formed. The unit discusses how different regions influence the cultural and economic activities Canadians practice today. It also explores how interactions between Canadians and the environment are producing new challenges at home and abroad.

25 hours

Unit 3: Managing Canada’s Resources and Industries

This unit examines the connections between Canada’s geographic make-up, its resources, and their influences on industry and the economy. The content explores what might be the future of Canada’s economy and how the country can sustainably manage its resources. It reviews the different economic sectors before investigating their importance to the Canadian economy and how they are influenced by trade between Canada and other countries.

25 hours

Unit 4: Changing Populations

This unit introduces the topic of demography. It examines the population of Canada and the impact that a changing population has on Canada and the rest of the world. The unit offers investigations into population trends, migration, immigration, ageing populations, and urbanization. All topics are explored in relation to how they influence the balance of economic and social demands.

20 hours

Unit 5: Livable Communities

This unit explores the unique challenges posed by Canadian land use and development. It identifies various factors that influence land use and explains how they affect land use patterns. Topics such as urban growth, sustainability, and the management of developing communities are examined according to various case studies. Energy, transportation, and Canadian food systems are all studied in relation to sustainable, cost-effective growth and management.

20 hours
Final Assessments

Unit 6: Project

The final project allows students to choose from a variety of different topics or issues to explore. Students will use the geographic inquiry process to generate an inquiry question that will guide their research. They will make use of a variety of geographic skills, concepts, terms, and content to help address their inquiry question. They will communicate their research findings in a written report.

6 hours


There is a proctored final exam worth 15% of the final grade.

2 hours
Total 110 hours

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

Students learn best when they are engaged in a variety of ways of learning. Business studies courses lend themselves to a wide range of approaches in that they require students to discuss issues, solve problems using applications software, participate in business simulations, conduct research, think critically, work cooperatively, and make business decisions. When students are engaged in active and experiential learning strategies, they tend to retain knowledge for longer periods and to develop meaningful skills.

These include:

Discussions Teamwork
Use of spatial technologies Brainstorming
Use of Case Studies Mind Mapping
Simulations of various maps Problem Solving
Independent Research Personal Reflections
Seminar Presentations Portfolios
Hands on Applications Direct Instructions

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

Our theory of assessment and evaluation follows the Ministry of Education’s Growing Success document, and it is our firm belief that doing so is in the best interests of students. We seek to design assessment in such a way as to make it possible to gather and show evidence of learning in a variety of ways to gradually release responsibility to the students, and to give multiple and varied opportunities to reflect on learning and receive detailed feedback.

Assessment is a systematic process of collecting information or evidence about a student’s progress towards meeting the learning expectations. Assessment is embedded in the instructional activities throughout a unit. The expectations for the assessment tasks are clearly articulated and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course. The purpose of assessment is to gather the data or evidence and to provide meaningful feedback to the student about how to improve or sustain the performance in the course. Scaled criteria designed as rubrics are often used to help the student to recognize their level of achievement and to provide guidance on how to achieve the next level. Although assessment information can be gathered from a number of sources (the student himself, the student’s course mates, the teacher), evaluation is the responsibility of only the teacher. For evaluation is the process of making a judgment about the assessment information and determining the percentage grade or level.

Assessment is embedded within the instructional process throughout each unit rather than being an isolated event at the end. Often, the learning and assessment tasks are the same, with formative assessment provided throughout the unit. In every case, the desired demonstration of learning is articulated clearly and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course as stated in the course guideline. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.

A variety of strategies are used to allow students opportunities to attain the necessary skills for success in this course and at the post-secondary level of study. To facilitate learning, the teacher uses a variety of activities engaging the whole class, small groups, and individual students.

The assessment will be based on the following processes that take place in the classroom:

 Assessment FOR Learning  Assessment AS Learning  Assessment OF Learning
During this process the teacher seeks information from the students in order to decide where the learners are and where they need to go. During this process the teacher fosters the capacity of the students and establishes individual goals for success with each one of them. During this process the teacher reports student’s results in accordance to established criteria to inform how well students are learning.
Conversation Conversation Conversation
Classroom discussionSelf-evaluationPeer assessment Classroom discussionSmall group discussionPost-lab conferences Presentations of research Debates
Observation Observation Observation
Drama workshops (taking direction) Steps in problem solving Group discussions PresentationsGroup Presentations
Student Products Student Products Student Products
Reflection journals (to be kept throughout the duration of the course)Check ListsSuccess Criteria Practice sheetsSocrative quizzes ProjectsPoster presentations TestsIn Class Presentations

Some of the approaches to teaching/learning include 

Strategy Who Assessment Tool
Assignments teacher rubric or marking scheme
Oral Presentations self/peer or teacher rubric
Work & Task Sheets self /peer or teacher checklist or rubric or marking scheme
Textbook Use self or teacher checklist
Teacher Led Review self/peer or teacher checklist
Performance Task self/peer or teacher rubric
Written Quiz teacher marking scheme
Written Test teacher marking scheme
Performance Task teacher rubric or marking scheme
Final Project teacher marking scheme


[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

The evaluation of this course is based on the four Ministry of Education achievement categories of knowledge and understanding (25%), thinking/inquiry (25%), communication (25%), and application (25%). The evaluation for this course is based on the student’s achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning.

The percentage grade represents the quality of the student’s overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline.

A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

  • 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of
  • 30% of the grade will be based on a final exam administered at the end of the The exam will contain a summary of information from the course and will consist of well-formulated multiple-choice questions. These will be evaluated using a checklist.


Resources required by the student:

  • Access to various web resources for guided research activities
  • A calculator (online or handheld)
  • Writing or colouring tools and paper
  • Access to voice recording or video recording tools (webcam, cell phone, )

Teachers who are planning a program must take into account a number of considerations in a number of important areas. Essential information that pertains to all disciplines is provided in Program Planning and Assessment, 2000. The areas of concern to all teachers include the following:

  • types of secondary school courses
  • education for exceptional students
  • environmental Education
  • program consideration for English Language Learners
  • career education
  • cooperative education and other workplace experiences
  • health and safety

Considerations relating to the areas listed above that have particular relevance for program planning are noted here.

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

It is important to ensure that all students, especially those with special education needs, are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence needed to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs. Accommodations (instructional, environmental or assessment) allow the student with special education needs access to the curriculum without changes to the course curriculum expectations.

[/et_pb_code][et_pb_code _builder_version=”4.16″ global_colors_info=”{}”]

Environmental education teaches students about how the planet’s physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design following the resource document. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.

USCA helps students to become environmentally responsible. The first goal is to promote learning about environmental issues and solutions. The second goal is to engage students in practicing and promoting environmental stewardship in their community. The third goal stresses the importance of the education system providing leadership by implementing and promoting responsible environmental practices so that all stakeholders become dedicated to living more sustainably. Environmental education teaches students about how the planet’s physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future.

USCA provides a number of strategies to address the needs of ESL/ELD students to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. Our teacher considers it to be his or her responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate accommodations affecting the teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. School determines the student’s level of proficiency in the English Language upon registration. This information is communicated to the teacher of the course following the registration and the teacher then invokes a number of strategies and resources to support the student in the course.

Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this course are essential for a wide range of careers. Being able to express oneself in a clear concise manner without ambiguity in a second language, would be an overall intention of this course, as it helps students prepare for success in their working lives.

By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Teachers should maintain links with community-based businesses to ensure that students have access to hands-on experiences that will reinforce the knowledge they have gained in school.

Every student is entitled to learn in a safe, caring environment, free from violence and harassment. Students learn and achieve better in such environments. The safe and supportive social environment at USCA is founded on healthy relationships between all people. Healthy relationships are based on respect, caring, empathy, trust, and dignity, and thrive in an environment in which diversity is honoured and accepted. Healthy relationships do not tolerate abusive, controlling, violent, bullying/harassing, or other inappropriate behaviours. To experience themselves as valued and connected members of an inclusive social environment, students need to be involved in healthy relationships with their peers, teachers, and other members.

Critical thinking is the process of thinking about ideas or situations in order to understand them fully, identify their implications, make a judgement, and/or guide decision making. Critical thinking includes skills such as questioning, predicting, analysing, synthesizing, examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias, and distinguishing between alternatives. Students who are taught these skills become critical thinkers who can move beyond superficial conclusions to a deeper understanding of the issues they are examining. They are able to engage in an inquiry process in which they explore complex and multifaceted issues, and questions for which there may be no clear-cut answers.

The school library program in USCA can help build and transform students’ knowledge in order to support lifelong learning in our information- and knowledge-based society. The school library program of these schools supports student success across the curriculum by encouraging students to read widely, teaching them to examine and read many forms of text for understanding and enjoyment, and helping them improve their research skills and effectively use information gathered through research. USCA teachers assist students in accessing a variety of online resources and collections (e.g., professional articles, image galleries, videos, databases). Teachers at USCA will also guide students through the concept of ownership of work and the importance of copyright in all forms of media.

Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Virtual High School students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment. Although the Internet is a powerful learning tool, there are potential risks attached to its use. All students must be made aware of issues related to Internet privacy, safety, and responsible use, as well as of the potential for abuse of this technology, particularly when it is used to promote hatred.

USCA provides varied opportunities for students to learn about ethical issues and to explore the role of ethics in both public and personal decision making. During the inquiry process, students may need to make ethical judgements when evaluating evidence and positions on various issues, and when drawing their own conclusions about issues, developments, and events. Teachers may need to help students in determining appropriate factors to consider when making such judgements. In addition, it is crucial that USCA teachers provide support and supervision to students throughout the inquiry process, ensuring that students engaged in an inquiry are aware of potential ethical concerns and address them in acceptable ways. Teachers will ensure that they thoroughly address the issue of plagiarism with students. In a digital world in which there is easy access to abundant information, it is very easy to copy the words of others and present them as one’s own. Students need to be reminded, even at the secondary level, of the ethical issues surrounding plagiarism, and the consequences of plagiarism should be clearly discussed before students engage in an inquiry. It is important to discuss not only dishonest plagiarism but also more negligent plagiarism instances.