Canada: History, Identity, and Culture, Grade 12, University Preparation (CHI4U)















Course Title : Canada: History, Identity, and Culture, Grade 12, University Preparation (CHI4U)
Course Name : Canada: History, Identity, and Culture
Course Code : CHI4U
Grade : 12
Course Type : University Preparation
Credit Value : 1.0
Prerequisite : Any university (U) or university/college (M) preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies.
Curriculum Policy Document: Canadian and World Studies, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12, 2015 (Revised)

Course Developer:

USCA Academy



Development Date:

June 2019

Most Recent Revision Date: June 2021

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Course Description

Canada History: This course traces the history of Canada, with a focus on the evolution of our national identity and culture as well as the identity and culture of various groups that make up Canada. Students will explore various developments and events, both national and international, from precontact to the present, and will examine various communities in Canada and how they have contributed to identity and heritage in Canada. Students will investigate the development of culture and identity, including national identity, in Canada and how and why they have changed throughout the country’s history. They will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, as they investigate the people, events, and forces that have shaped Canada.


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Overall Curriculum Expectations

Canada History

A1 Historical Inquiry: use the historical inquiry process and the concepts of historical thinking when investigating aspects of Canadian history, with a focus on the development of identity and culture

A2 Developing Transferable Skills: apply in everyday contexts skills developed through historical investigation, and identify careers in which these skills might be useful

Canada History

B1 Setting the Context: analyse the significance, for different groups in Canada, of various social/cultural, economic, and political practices and developments prior to 1774

B2 Interactions and Interdependence: analyse activities of and interactions between various groups in Canada prior to 1774 and how these groups and their interactions contributed to the development of Canada, including the development of identity in Canada

B3  Diversity and Citizenship: assess the impact of various individuals, groups, and colonial   policies prior to 1774 on the development of identity, citizenship, and heritage in Canada

Canada History

C1 Setting the Context: analyse various social/cultural, economic, and political events, trends, and/or developments that occurred in or affected Canada between 1774 and 1867, and assess their impact

C2 Interactions and Interdependence: analyse the impact on the development of Canada of various interactions between different groups in Canada, as well as between Canada, Great Britain, and the United States, from 1774 to 1867

C3  Diversity and Citizenship: analyse how various individuals and groups contributed to the   social and political development of Canada between 1774 and 1867 and to the evolution of identity and citizenship in Canada

Canada History

D1 Setting the Context: analyse how various social/ cultural, economic, and political events, trends, and/or developments in Canada from 1867 to 1945 contributed to the development of the country

D2 Interactions and Interdependence: analyse how various interactions at both the national and international level between 1867 and 1945 contributed to the development of Canada

D3 Diversity and Citizenship: analyse challenges facing various groups in Canada between 1867 and 1945 as well as the contributions of various groups and individuals to the development of identity, culture, and citizenship in Canada

Canada History

E1 Setting the Context: analyse various social/cultural, economic, and political events, trends, and/or developments in Canada since 1945 and their impact on the development of the country

E2 Interactions and Interdependence: analyse how various interactions at both the national and International level since 1945 have contributed to the development of Canada, including the development of identity in Canada

E3   Diversity and Citizenship: analyse how various individuals and groups have contributed to    the development of identity, culture, and citizenship in Canada since 1945

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Unit Desdcription












Unit Titles and Descriptions Time and Sequence

Unit 1

Early European Settlement:

What were some of the conditions in Europe that led so many people to make that dangerous migration across the treacherous Atlantic Ocean during the 17th and 18th centuries? In this first unit students will tackle this question head-on focusing on the first European contact with Canada’s Indigenous peoples, the diverse impacts of contact on Indigenous peoples, and exploring the socio-cultural differences and similarities of AngloFrench colonial settlement.

20 hours

Unit 2

Colonial Canada

In unit two, students will learn about the wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, understanding the economic and political context and impacts of those wars in North America.

Ultimately, during this period, English supremacy prevailed in North America by 1763. However, this supremacy would be tested many times. First, was during the American Revolution that started in 1775. The colony of Canada would experience social change as a result of proximity to the 13 colonies, most significantly, the arrival of thousands of British loyalists fleeing the United States. The war of 1812 was another test to British supremacy in North America as the newly independent United States of America sought to invade Canada. Finally, students will learn about the impact of this period in Atlantic, Northwest, and Pacific Canada where rebellions against British rule were beginning.

15 hours

Unit 3

Building the New Dominion

In unit three, students will learn about the causes and contributing factors that ultimately led to Confederation, the unions of Canada’s provinces to form the Dominion of Canada. Students will explore how the two-party system of government evolved after 1867 and some of the traditional Conservative and Liberal policies and politics that built and shaped Canada after Confederation and into the 20th century through an investigation of two famous Prime Ministers: John

A. Macdonald and Wilfrid Laurier. This period in Canada’s history is one of nation building, characterized by unprecedented economic growth. Students will learn about the settlement of Canada’s western frontier and the discovery of gold in Canada’s north. These economic changes also spurred social growth, as Canada’s population swelled thanks to a new wave of immigrants from Europe.

15 hours

Unit 4

Two World Wars and Depression

The two world wars are considered ‘catalysts of national development’. In this unit students will come to appreciate the exceptional role Canada played in the wars of the century and how these contributions contributed to growing Canadian identity. Students will reflect on the courage, valour, and sacrifices that were made by Canadians in their passionate defense of Canadian values. The Great Depression is examined and recognized as yet another tumultuous period in Canadian history. In addition to the turmoil of the World Wars and Great Depression, students will learn about the progressive social change that Canada experienced between the Two World Wars. The interwar years was a time of unprecedented social change, especially the expansion of human rights.

20 hours

Unit 5

Postwar Canada

In this unit, students will explore the social, political, and economic changes to Canadian society in the postwar period (1945-1982). Canada made the biggest advances in protecting its citizens from economic hardship and human rights violations in the decades following World War Two. Despite these social advances, students will learn about how the world was plunged back into conflict during the Cold War and Canada’s role in international affairs as a middle power and peacekeeper. The theme of activism was significant during the 1960s across Canada and students will explore a variety of social movements including human rights, feminism, multiculturalism, and environmentalism.

15 hours

Unit 6

Modern Canada

In this unit, students will explore the domestic political scene in Canada, including constitutional developments, Canada’s political parties, and regional political tensions. The modern period (1982 to the present) is also a time when globalization began to deeply influence Canada. Students will analyze the influence of globalization including Canada’s changing relationship with the United States and other countries around the world in terms of economics, social policies, and cultural events. A main imperative of this course has been to describe the evolution of Canadian identity and so students will summarize the influence of French, British, and American relations. Students will conclude by reflecting on a common theme throughout the course: human rights. In the modern period, Canada has made considerable effort to correct past injustices through commemorations and reparations.

15 hours

Unit 6

Final Summative Assessment

Project As a final culminating assignment, students will complete a Major Research Project. This project is worth 30% of the final grade.

10 hours



110 hours

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Canada History: Since the over-riding aim of this course is to help students use language skilfully, confidently and flexibly, a wide variety of instructional strategies are used to provide learning opportunities to accommodate a variety of learning styles, interests and ability levels. These include:








Directed Reading Activities


Group work

Brain storming

Literature Circles


Structured Discussions

Oral presentations

Close reading

Role play

Self assessments

Video presentations

Independent Study

Peer assessments

Internet instructional videos


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Assessment is a systematic process of collecting information or evidence about a student’s progress towards meeting the learning expectations. Assessment is embedded in the instructional activities throughout a unit. The expectations for the assessment tasks are clearly articulated and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course. The purpose of assessment is to gather the data or evidence and to provide meaningful feedback to the student about how to improve or sustain the performance in the course. Scaled criteria designed as rubrics are often used to help the student to recognize their level of achievement and to provide guidance on how to achieve the next level. Although assessment information can be gathered from a number of sources (the student himself, the student’s course mates, the teacher), evaluation is the responsibility of only the teacher. For evaluation is the process of making a judgment about the assessment information and determining the percentage grade or level.

The assessment will be based on the following processes that take place in the classroom:











Assessment FOR Learning Assessment AS Learning Assessment OF Learning

During this process the teacher seeks information from the students in order to decide where the learners are and where they need to go.

During this process the teacher fosters the capacity of the students and establishes individual goals for success with each one of them.

During this process the teacher reports student’s results in accordance to established criteria to inform how well students are learning.

Conversation Conversation Conversation

Classroom discussion Self-evaluation Peer assessment

Classroom discussion Small group discussion Post-lab conferences Presentations of research Debates
Observation Observation Observation
Drama workshops (taking direction) Steps in problem solving Group discussions Presentations Group Presentations
Student Products Student Products Student Products
Reflection journals (to be kept throughout the duration of the course)
Check Lists
Success Criteria
Practice sheets
Socrative quizzes
Poster presentations Tests
In Class Presentations

Some of the approaches to teaching/learning include






















Assessment Tool

Class discussion


Observation Checklist

Response Journal


Anecdotal Comments

Student Chosen Song


Observation Checklist

Narrative Poem/Song


Rubric and Anecdotal Comments

Character Sketch



Journal Responses


Anecdotal comments

Short Story Analysis


Rating scale

Short Story Outline


Rating scale



Direct Observation

Found poem


Direct Observation

Journal Entries



Research Notes



Non-fiction Report/Presentation



Presentation to group


Self and peer assessment rubric

Sight passage


Marking scheme

Narrative piece



Assessment is embedded within the instructional process throughout each unit rather than being an isolated event at the end. Often, the learning and assessment tasks are the same, with formative assessment provided throughout the unit. In every case, the desired demonstration of learning is articulated clearly and the learning activity is planned to make that demonstration possible. This process of beginning with the end in mind helps to keep focus on the expectations of the course as stated in the course guideline. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.

A variety of strategies are used to allow students opportunities to attain the necessary skills for success in this course and at the post-secondary level of study. To facilitate learning, the teacher uses a variety of activities engaging the whole class, small groups, and individual students.

Some of the approaches to teaching/learning include














Assessment Tool



rubric or marking scheme

Oral Presentations

self/peer or teacher


Textbook Use

self or teacher


Teacher Led Review/Discussions

self/peer or teacher


Performance Task

self/peer or teacher


Written Quiz


marking scheme

Written Test


marking scheme

Discussion Evaluation

Self or teacher (summative)


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The evaluation of this course is based on the four Ministry of Education achievement categories of knowledge and understanding (25%), thinking (25%), communication (25%), and application (25%). . The evaluation for this course is based on the student’s achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning.

The percentage grade represents the quality of the student’s overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline.

A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student’s grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:


    • 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student’s most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of achievement.


    • 30% of the grade will be based on a final exam administered at the end of the The exam will contain a summary of information from the course and will consist of well-formulated multiple choice questions. These will be evaluated using a checklist.


Brune, Nick, et. al. Defining Canada: History, Identity, and Culture. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 2003. ISBN 0070913838

Turabian, Kate L. Manual For Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 8th ed. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 2013. ISBN 0226816389

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    • Anderson, Fred. The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. ISBN 0-14-303804-4


    • Axelrod, Paul, editor. Youth, University and Canadian Society. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-7735-0709-4


    • Bercuson, David. The Fighting Canadians: Our Regimental History from New France to Afghanistan. Toronto: Harper Collins Canada, 2008. ISBN: 978000200734


    • Careless, J.M.S. Canada: A Story of Challenge. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Company Limited, 1970. ISBN 0-7736-7354-7


    • Copp, Terry. Fields of Fire: The Canadians in Normandy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8020-3780-1


    • Chartrand, Rene. Monongahela 1754-1755: Washington’s Defeat, Braddock’s Disaster.

Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited,2004. ISBN 1-84176-683-6


    • Eccles, W.J. The French in North America, 1500-1783. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1998. ISBN 1-55041-0768


    • English, John A. The Canadian Army and the Normandy Campaign: A Study of Failure In High Command. New York: Praeger Publishing Inc., 1991. ISBN 0-275-93019-X


    • Ford, Ken. Dieppe 1942: Prelude to D-Day. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2003. ISBN 1-841176-624-0


    • Francis, R. Douglas, Richard Jones and Donald B. Smith. Origins: Canadian Hsitory to Confederation, Fifth Edition. Toronto: Thomson Nelson Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-17- 622434-3


    • Destinations: Canadian History Since Confederation, Fifth Edition. Toronto: Thomson Nelson Publishing, 2004.ISBN 0-17-622435-1S


    • Keegan, John. Warpaths: Travels of a Military Historian in North America. Toronto: Key

Porter Books Limited, 1995. ISBN 1-55013-621-6


    • Lynn, John A., Giant of the Grand Siecle: The French Army, 1610-1715. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-521-57273-8


    • McCreery, Christopher. The Canadian Honours System. Toronto: Dundurn Press,

ISBN 1-55002-554-6


    • Miller, Carman. Painting the Map Red: Canada and the South African War 1899-1902.

Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7735-0913-5


    • Morton, Desmond. When Your Number’s Up: The Canadian Soldier in the First World War.

Toronto: Random House of Canada Limited, 1993. ISBN 0-394-22288-1


    • Reid, Stuart. Quebec 1759: The Battle That Won Canada. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2003. ISBN 1-85532-605-1


    • Stacey, C.P. Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies Volume 1; 1867-1921. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8020-6560-0


    • . Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies Volume 2; 1921-1948, The Mackenzie


    • KingYears. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8020-6420-5


    • Woodcock, George. A Social History of Canada. Markham, Ontario: Penguin Books, 1989. ISBN 0-14-010536-0

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Teachers who are planning a program in Canadian and World Studies must take into account considerations in a number of important areas. Essential information that pertains to all disciplines is provided in the companion piece to this document, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 12: Program Planning and Assessment. The areas of concern to all teachers that are outlined there include the following:


    • Education for Exceptional Students

    • The Role of Technology in the Curriculum

    • English as a Second Language (ESL) and English Literacy Development (ELD)

    • Antidiscrimination Education in the English Program

    • Literacy, Numeracy, and Inquiry/Research Skills

    • Career Education

    • Cooperative Education

    • Health and Safety

Considerations relating to the areas listed above that have particular relevance for program planning in English are noted here.

It is important to ensure that all students, especially those with special education needs, are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence needed to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs. Accommodations (instructional, environmental or assessment) allow the student with special education needs access to the curriculum without changes to the course curriculum expectations.

Environmental education teaches students about how the planet’s physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design following the resource document. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.

USCA helps students to become environmentally responsible. The first goal is to promote learning about environmental issues and solutions. The second goal is to engage students in practicing and promoting environmental stewardship in their community. The third goal stresses the importance of the education system providing leadership by implementing and promoting responsible environmental practices so that all stakeholders become dedicated to living more sustainably. Environmental education teaches students about how the planet’s physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future.

USCA provides a number of strategies to address the needs of ESL/ELD students to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. Our teacher considers it to be his or her responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate accommodations affecting the teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. School determines the student’s level of proficiency in the English Language upon registration. This information is communicated to the teacher of the course following the registration and the teacher then invokes a number of strategies and resources to support the student in the course.

Canada History: Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this course are essential for a wide range of careers. Being able to express oneself in a clear concise manner without ambiguity in a second language, would be an overall intention of this French course, as it helps students prepare for success in their working lives.

By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Teachers of French should maintain links with community-based businesses to ensure that students have access to hands-on experiences that will reinforce the knowledge they have gained in school.

Every student is entitled to learn in a safe, caring environment, free from violence and harassment. Students learn and achieve better in such environments. The safe and supportive social environment at USCA is founded on healthy relationships between all people. Healthy relationships are based on respect, caring, empathy, trust, and dignity, and thrive in an environment in which diversity is honoured and accepted. Healthy relationships do not tolerate abusive, controlling, violent, bullying/harassing, or other inappropriate behaviours. To experience themselves as valued and connected members of an inclusive social environment, students need to be involved in healthy relationships with their peers, teachers, and other members.

Critical thinking is the process of thinking about ideas or situations in order to understand them fully, identify their implications, make a judgement, and/or guide decision making. Critical thinking includes skills such as questioning, predicting, analysing, synthesizing, examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias, and distinguishing between alternatives. Students who are taught these skills become critical thinkers who can move beyond superficial conclusions to a deeper understanding of the issues they are examining. They are able to engage in an inquiry process in which they explore complex and multifaceted issues, and questions for which there may be no clear-cut answers.

The school library program in USCA can help build and transform students’ knowledge in order to support lifelong learning in our information- and knowledge-based society. The school library program of these schools supports student success across the curriculum by encouraging students to read widely, teaching them to examine and read many forms of text for understanding and enjoyment, and helping them improve their research skills and effectively use information gathered through research. USCA teachers assist students in accessing a variety of online resources and collections (e.g., professional articles, image galleries, videos, databases). Teachers at USCA will also guide students through the concept of ownership of work and the importance of copyright in all forms of media.

Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Virtual High School students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment. Although the Internet is a powerful learning tool, there are potential risks attached to its use. All students must be made aware of issues related to Internet privacy, safety, and responsible use, as well as of the potential for abuse of this technology, particularly when it is used to promote hatred.

USCA provides varied opportunities for students to learn about ethical issues and to explore the role of ethics in both public and personal decision making. During the inquiry process, students may need to make ethical judgements when evaluating evidence and positions on various issues, and when drawing their own conclusions about issues, developments, and events. Teachers may need to help students in determining appropriate factors to consider when making such judgements. In addition, it is crucial that USCA teachers provide support and supervision to students throughout the inquiry process, ensuring that students engaged in an inquiry are aware of potential ethical concerns and address them in acceptable ways. Teachers will ensure that they thoroughly address the issue of plagiarism with students. In a digital world in which there is easy access to abundant information, it is very easy to copy the words of others and present them as one’s own. Students need to be reminded, even at the secondary level, of the ethical issues surrounding plagiarism, and the consequences of plagiarism should be clearly discussed before students engage in an inquiry. It is important to discuss not only dishonest plagiarism but also more negligent plagiarism instances.